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Publications directly linked to Trial Forge


Arundel, C.E., Clark, L.K., Parker, A. Beard D, Coleman E, Cooper C, Devane D, Eldridge S, Galvin S, Gillies K, Hewitt CE, Sutton C, Torgerson DJ, Treweek S on behalf of the PROMETHEUS Group. Trial Forge Guidance 4: a guideline for reporting the results of randomised Studies Within A Trial (SWATs). Trials 2024, 25: 83.

Parker, A., Way, R., Okanlawon, A. A., Mongelli, G., Coleman, E., Arundel, C., … Treweek, S. (2024, February 8). WP1: Identifying and prioritising trial recruitment and retention strategies.

Parker A, Arundel C, Clark L, Coleman E, Doherty L, Hewitt CE, Beard D, Bower P, Cooper C, Clifford L, Devane D, Emily R, Eldridge S, Galvin S, Gillies K, Montgomery A, Sutton CJ, Treweek S, Torgerson DJ. Undertaking Studies Within A Trial to evaluate recruitment and retention strategies for randomised controlled trials: lessons learnt from the PROMETHEUS research programme. Health Technol Assess 2024, 28:2.

Shepherd V, Joyce K., Lewis A, Flynn S, Clout M, Nocivelli B, Segrott J, Treweek S. Improving the inclusion of an under-served group in trials: development and implementation of the INCLUDE Impaired Capacity to Consent Framework. Trials 2024, 25: 83.


Buckley, C., Treweek, S., Laidlaw, L. Shiely F. Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) in outcome selection in breast cancer and nephrology trials. Trials 2023, 24: 93.


Gardner H, Elfeky A, Pickles D, Dawson A, Gillies K, Warwick V, Treweek S. A good use of time? Providing evidence for how effort is invested in primary and secondary outcome data collection in trials.  Trials 2022, 23: 1047.

Dawson S, Banister K, Biggs K, Cotton S, Devane D, Gardner H, Gillies K, Gopalakrishnan G, Isaacs T, Khunti K, Nichol A, Parker A, AM Russell, Shepherd V, Shiely F, Shorter G, Starling B, Williams H, Willis A, Witham MD and Treweek S. Trial Forge Guidance 3: randomised trials and how to recruit and retain individuals from ethnic minority groups—practical guidance to support better practice. Trials 2022, 23: 672.

Clark, L. et al. (2022) ‘The PROMoting the USE of SWATs (PROMETHEUS) programme: Lessons learnt and future developments for SWATs’, Research Methods in Medicine & Health Sciences.

Elfeky A, Treweek S, Hannes K, et al. Using qualitative methods in pilot and feasibility trials to inform recruitment and retention processes in full-scale randomised trials: a qualitative evidence synthesis. BMJ Open 2022;12:e055521.

Murphy, E., Shiely, F. & Treweek, S. How much is the lack of retention evidence costing trial teams in Ireland and the UK?. Trials 23, 396 (2022).

Pirosca, S., Shiely, F., Clarke, M. Treweek S. Tolerating bad health research: the continuing scandal. Trials 2022, 23, 458.

Treweek, S., Miyakoda, V., Burke, D. Shiely F. Getting it wrong most of the time? Comparing trialists’ choice of primary outcome with what patients and health professionals want. Trials 2022, 23, 537.


Coleman, E., Arundel, C., Clark, L., Doherty, L., Gillies, K., Hewitt, C. A., Innes, K., Parker, A., Torgerson, D., & Treweek, S. (2021). Bah humbug! Association between sending Christmas cards to trial participants and trial retention: randomised study within a trial conducted simultaneously across eight host trials. BMJ, 375, [e067742].

Treweek, S., Banister, K., Bower, P. et al. Developing the INCLUDE Ethnicity Framework—a tool to help trialists design trials that better reflect the communities they serve. Trials 22, 337 (2021).


Crowley, E., Treweek, S., Banister, K. et al. Using systematic data categorisation to quantify the types of data collected in clinical trials: the DataCat project. Trials 21, 535 (2020).

Elfeky, A., Gillies, K., Gardner, H. et al. Non-randomised evaluations of strategies to increase participant retention in randomised controlled trials: a systematic review. Syst Rev 9, 224 (2020).

Gardner HR, Albarquoni L, El Feky A et al. A systematic review of non-randomised evaluations of strategies to improve participant recruitment to randomised controlled trials [version 1; peer review: 2 approved, 2 approved with reservations, 1 not approved]. F1000Research 2020, 9:86 (

Pirosca S, Clarke M and Treweek S. Learning from Cochrane systematic reviews: what improvements do these suggest for the design of trials? [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]. F1000Research 2020, 9:178 (

Treweek, S., Bevan, S., Bower, P. et al. Trial Forge Guidance 2: how to decide if a further Study Within A Trial (SWAT) is needed. Trials 21, 33 (2020).


Bruhn, H., Treweek, S., Duncan, A. et al. Estimating Site Performance (ESP): can trial managers predict recruitment success at trial sites? An exploratory study. Trials 20, 192 (2019).

Gardner HR, Treweek S, Gillies K (2019) Using evidence when planning for trial recruitment: An international perspective from time-poor trialists. PLoS ONE 14(12): e0226081.


Treweek, S., Bevan, S., Bower, P. et al. Trial Forge Guidance 1: what is a Study Within A Trial (SWAT)?. Trials 19, 139 (2018).

El Feky A, Gillies K, Gardner H, Fraser C, Treweek S. A protocol for a systematic review of non- randomised evaluations of strategies to increase participant retention to randomised controlled trials. Systematic Reviews; 2018 Feb 16;:1–7.


Gardner, H.R., Fraser, C., MacLennan, G. et al. A protocol for a systematic review of non-randomised evaluations of strategies to improve participant recruitment to randomised controlled trials. Syst Rev 5, 131 (2016).


Treweek, S., Altman, D.G., Bower, P. et al. Making randomised trials more efficient: report of the first meeting to discuss the Trial Forge platform. Trials 16, 261 (2015).

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